1. Дорога длиною в жизнь

    Hours of aging: reset, slow down, reverse?

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    The human body is like a clock: arrows constantly running forward, we age. The mechanism of this watch is very complicated, but biologists managed to understand some of the principles of its operation. For example, they have learned to slow down the aging process of cells and return it to the "infancy". How about to rejuvenate the whole body?

    What is aging? Usually, aging understand the process by which gradually broken and lost important functions, including the ability to reproduce and regeneration. On the causes of aging are put forward various hypotheses, which can be divided into two groups. Proponents of the first claim that the process is due to a certain program, pledged evolution, with this program you can slow down or break. Proponents of the second group object: no special program exists, but accumulate over time damage and breakage in all structures of the body, which leads to aging.

    Regardless of the correctness of one or the other, the aging process are the same for everyone. Thus, over time, the DNA having mutation in the cells accumulate units damaged proteins and lipids. In addition, less cell division occurs, and the functions they perform less efficiently, which in turn leads to slower regeneration of organs, decrease in muscle mass, decreased immunity, reduced mental capacity and so forth. These changes - only a fraction of all, not too pleasant processes that occur in the aging body. A list of these physiological problems leads to a grim thought. But hundreds of researchers around the world are working on the return of youth. And I must say, have had some success.

    One of the important achievements of biologists has been an increase in life expectancy of laboratory animals - the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse Mus musculus. Used two approaches: an artificially induced mutations in certain genes and a special low-calorie diet.

    Genes that influence life expectancy, are experimentally and then try to understand the mechanism of their action. To date, several dozen discovered genes such - as in various laboratory animals and humans.

    Interestingly, the use of these techniques not only prolong life, but young laboratory animals. It turns out that we are able to slow down the "clock of aging." If you are interested in opening biologists, read more in the magazine Science and Life №4, 2015: http://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/26133/index.php?PAGEN_3=1&ELEMENT_ID=26133#nav_start_3

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